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DE LANGLADE, Charles Michel[1]

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  • Born  9 May 1729  Ottawa Village, Mackinac Island, MI Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Gender  Male 
    Died  Jan 1800  Green Bay, Brown, WI Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Submit Headstone PhotoSubmit Headstone Photo 
    Residence 1  Bef 1837  Penetanguishene, Tiny Township in Simcoe County, Ontario, CAN Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Residence 1  Bef 1837  Penetanguishene, Tiny Township in Simcoe County, Ontario, CAN Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Residence 2  Province of record source: Ontario Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Residence 3  County of record source: Simcoe Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Reference Number  474 
    Age  70 years 
    Person ID  I00199  Hoxsie Family II
    Last Modified  20 Apr 2012 

    Father  AncestorsLANGLADE, Augustin Mouet Sieur,   b. 16 Sep 1703, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, Canada Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1777, Green Bay, Brown, WI Find all individuals with events at this location  –  Age: 73 years 
    Mother  AncestorsKABE, Domitelle Neveu Eight,   b. Abt 1707, Mackinac, MI. Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft Sep 1782  –  Age: ~ 75 years 
    Married  1728  Mackinac, MI Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID  F0010  Group Sheet

    Family  AncestorsBOURASSA, Charlotte Ambroise,   b. 14 Jun 1735, La Prairie, Quebec, CAN Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1817, Green Bay, Brown, WI Find all individuals with events at this location  –  Age: 81 years 
    Married  12 Aug 1754  Mackinac Island, MI Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Children 
     1. DE LANGLADE, Charlotte,   b. 1756, Grand River, MI Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Between 1756 and 1840  –  Age: 0 years
    +2. DE LANGLADE, Louise Domitilde,   b. 20 Jan 1759, Mackinac, MI Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Oct 1823, Green Bay, Brown Co., WI Find all individuals with events at this location  –  Age: 64 years
    Family ID  F0008  Group Sheet

  • Notes 
    • Br°derbund Family Archive #118, Canadian Genealogy Index, 1600s - 1900s,
      Individual: Langlade, Charles
      Event: Living
      Year: Bef 1837
      Place: Penetanguishene, Tiny Township
      Province of record source: Ontario
      County of record source: Simcoe
      Source: The History of Simcoe County, Part 2-The Pioneers.
      Author: Andrew F. Hunter
      Publisher: The Historical Committee of Simcoe County
      Publication place: Barrie, ON
      Publication year: 1948
      Volume/Page(s): 270
      Please note: The province and county are associated with the location of the record source and in some cases may not be the same as the place where the event occurred.
      ***************************************************************************************
      Narrated by Charles De Langlade's grandson in Wisconsin Historical Society Collections, Vol. III (1857) pp. 195-295; a sketch by Tasse is translated in Ibid, VII (1876) pp. 123-88. Documentary evidence corrected these earlier sketches and is the basis of the sketch in Ibid (1908) XVIII, pp. 130-32. Se also Joseph Tasse, Les Canadiens de l'Ouest (Montreal, 1878); Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol. III (1901) pp. 147-149; "Langlade Papers, 1737-1800" in Wisconsin Historical Society Collection, Vol. VIII (1879), pp. 209-23.

      DE LANGLADE, CHARLES MICHEL (May 1729 - 1801) was a remarkable French half-breed of the West. His father Augustin Mouet de Langlade was a scion of nobility from Guienne, and his mother (baptized Domitelle) was an Ottowa Indian, daughter and sister of the chiefs Nis-so-wa-quet or La Fourche. Charles, born in Mackinac, was their only child, but by his mother's previous marriage to a trader named Villeneuve, he had several half-brothers and sisters. He was educated by the Jesuit priests of the post where he lived, wrote a good hand, and was everywhere received as a gentleman. The first event of his career occurred when at the age of ten he accompanied his Indian uncles on a war expedition down the Mississippi. Thither a considerable French army came from New Orleans, and built a post near Memphis and there passed a winter preparing for a campaign against the rebellious Chickasaw. Young De Langlade became enamored of military life and learned of its details from French officers. Before 1750 he had enrolled as a cadet in the colonial troops, in 1755 was ensign, and in 1760 lieutenant. His first expedition was that of 1752, when he drove the British traders from the post of Pickawillany and killed the Miami chief "Old Britian."
      During all the French and Indian War, De Langlade was actively employed as a leader of the Indian Auxiliaries; he was credited by his contemporaries with the victory over Braddock; he defeated Roger's Rangers in 1757 on Lake Champlain; he aided in the attack on Fort William Henry; and served in the Quebec campaign of 1759. The next year he left Montreal before its capitulation to Amherst, and brought to Mackinac the news of the French downfall. Upon desertion of that post by the commandant, De Langlade as second in command delivered it to the English, and soon thereafter transferred his allegiance and became a loyal British subject. In Pontiac's conspiracy he was instrumental in saving the lives of several British soldiers; soon thereafter he removed his home to Green Bay where he and his father had long had a trading post. There as the chief settler he became known as the "Father of Wisconsin". His services for the British during the American Revolution were considerable; he had the rank of captain in the Indian department and sent Indian auxiliaries to Carleton and Burgoyne. In the West he parried the efforts of George Rogers Clark, and opposed both American and Spanish partisans. The King granted him lands in Canada for his services. In 1754 he was married at Mackinac to Charlotte Bourassa and left numerous descendants chiefly in the Grignon line. He lived at Green Bay in patriarchal fashion and there died in the midst of his descendents and...
      Essentially military in his characteristics, known to the western tribesmen as Akewaugeketauso, a soldier chief, he was in his home a kind and devoted father and master, was deeply loved by the Indians, and maintained under three flags his integrity and honor.[H_Brown2.ftw]

      [Br°derbund Family Archive #118, Ed. 1, Canadian Genealogy Index, 1600s - 1900s, Date of Import: 1 Feb 1997, Internal Ref. #1.118.1.45967.10]

      Individual: Langlade, Charles
      Event: Living
      Year: Bef 1837
      Place: Penetanguishene, Tiny Township

      Province of record source: Ontario
      County of record source: Simcoe

      Source: The History of Simcoe County, Part 2-The Pioneers.
      Author: Andrew F. Hunter
      Publisher: The Historical Committee of Simcoe County
      Publication place: Barrie, ON
      Publication year: 1948

      Volume/Page(s): 270

      Please note: The province and county are associated with the location of the record source and in some cases may not be the same as the place where the event occurred.
      *****************************************************************************
      Narrated by Charles De Langlade's grandson in Wisconsin Historical Society Collections, Vol. III (1857) pp. 195-295; a sketch by Tasse is translated in Ibid, VII (1876) pp. 123-88. Documentary evidence corrected these earlier sketches and is the basis of the sketch in Ibid (1908) XVIII, pp. 130-32. Se also Joseph Tasse, Les Canadiens de l'Ouest (Montreal, 1878); Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol. III (1901) pp. 147-149; "Langlade Papers, 1737-1800" in Wisconsin Historical Society Collection, Vol. VIII (1879), pp. 209-23.

      DE LANGLADE, CHARLES MICHEL (May 1729 - 1801) was a remarkable French half-breed of the West. His father Augustin Mouet de Langlade was a scion of nobility from Guienne, and his mother (baptized Domitelle) was an Ottowa Indian, daughter and sister of the chiefs Nis-so-wa-quet or La Fourche. Charles, born in Mackinac, was their only child, but by his mother's previous marriage to a trader named Villeneuve, he had several half-brothers and sisters. He was educated by the Jesuit priests of the post where he lived, wrote a good hand, and was everywhere received as a gentleman. The first event of his career occurred when at the age of ten he accompanied his Indian uncles on a war expedition down the Mississippi. Thither a considerable French army came from New Orleans, and built a post near Memphis and there passed a winter preparing for a campaign against the rebellious Chickasaw. Young De Langlade became enamored of military life and learned of its details from French officers. Before 1750 he had enrolled as a cadet in the colonial troops, in 1755 was ensign, and in 1760 lieutenant. His first expedition was that of 1752, when he drove the British traders from the post of Pickerill and killed the Miami chief "Old Britian."

      During all the French and Indian War, De Langlade was actively employed as a leader of the Indian Auxiliaries; he was credited by his contemporaries with the victory over Braddock; he defeated Roger's Rangers in 1757 on Lake Champlain; he aided in the attack on Fort William Henry; and served in the Quebec campaign of 1759. The next year he left Montreal before its capitulation to Amherst, and brought to Mackinac the news of the French downfall. Upon desertion of that post by the commandant, De Langlade as second in command delivered it to the English, and soon thereafter transferred his allegiance and became a loyal British subject. In Pontiac's conspiracy he was instrumental in saving the lives of several British soldiers; soon thereafter he removed his home to Green Bay where he and his father had long had a trading post. There as the chief settler he became known as the "Father of Wisconsin". His services for the British during the American Revolution were considerable; he had the rank of captain in the Indian department and sent Indian auxiliaries to Carleton and Burgoyne. In the West he parried the efforts of George Rogers Clark, and opposed both American and Spanish partisans. The King granted him lands in Canada for his services. In 1754 he was married at Mackinac to Charlotte Bourassa and left numerous descendants chiefly in the Grignon line. He lived at Green Bay in patriarchal fashion and there died in the midst of his descendents and...

      Essentially military in his characteristics, known to the western tribesmen as Akewaugeketauso, a soldier chief, he was in his home a kind and devoted father and master, was deeply loved by the Indians, and maintained under three flags his integrity and honor.

      Charles-Michel Langlade: (1724/29 - 1800)
      Charles was the son of Augustin Mouet, Sieur de Langlade & Domitille, born at Michillemackinac. He married Charlotte-Ambrose Bourassa (daughter of Rene Bourassa & Anne-Charlotte-Veronica Chevalier) (Charlotte had married Jean Bte. Leduc in 1773) in 1754 and also was married to an Ottawa woman by the name of Dourana.

      Sieur Charles Michel de Langlade Lost Cause Lost Culture by Sandra J. Zipperer

      In an unmarked grave, somewhere in Allouez Cemetery, lies the body of Charles de Langlade. This is not his first resting place. He was originally buried in the La Baye Cemetery. Langlade's life, too, has not rested easily in history. He has been either decried as a mercenary who was a myth of his own making or hailed as the "Father of Wisconsin." Neither is accurate. The man behind the myth, his motives, his ambition, and his unique world view and culture have, like his bones, been uprooted and obliterated.
      Langlade, who died in 1802, was never a resident of the state, which in 1848, would be known as Wisconsin. And it is doubtful he would have been pleased to be called the "Father of Wisconsin." Instead, he would have deplored the advent of the Yankees, the end of a way of life, and a new world, devoid of the manners, political system, and unique culture of the old pays d'en haut (Up Country).
      Writings about Langlade portray him as a man of ambition, bravery, and charm. He could be cruel, self-seeking, and politic. He was probably-for the most part-an honest man. Indians would not have followed him in military campaigns for as long as they did had he cheated them in trade or annuities. Langlade's home, the Up Country of New France, which encompassed today's Wisconsin, was a unique place where French and Indian cultures met and gave birth to a new culture, a middle ground. According to historian Richard White, this middle ground depended on the inability of both sides to gain their end through force. To succeed, those who operated on the middle ground had, of necessity, to attempt to understand the world and the reasoning of others and to assimilate enough of that reasoning to put it to their own purposes. Particularly, in diplomatic councils, the middle ground was a realm of constant invention, which was just as constantly presented as convention. Under the new conventions, new purposes arose, and so the cycle continued.3 But in this world, the older worlds of the Algonquians and of various Europeans overlapped and their mixture created new systems of meanings and exchange.4
      But in this new culture world views often clashed. The French fur traders advanced a paternalistic relationship between client and patron. It was autocratic with a strong sense of noblesse oblige. This world view of deference and social class had to be integrated into the independent and democratic world view of the Indian peoples, where chiefs derived power from persuasion, not absolute authority. However, mutual need as well as lack of a dominant force helped bridge this cultural gap.
      According to Kerry Trask, both sides recognized their dependence on the other.

      . . through marriage the white trader gained entry into the kinship groups of which the woodland societies were composed, thereby becoming directly related to the people with whom they hoped to do business. Indian wives taught their white husbands the languages of the forest, skills and knowledge often indispensable to survival in the wilderness. On the other hand, the tribal people of the Lakes, who suffered severe losses among their young men in the wars and epidemics of the eighteenth century, were eager to have their widows and daughters married off to Frenchmen who could provide for needs, generate new children and grant commercial concession to their woodland relatives.

      According to Olive Patricia Dickason, this policy originated with Samuel Champlain, who reportedly said, "Our young men will marry your daughters, and we shall be one people . . ." France, aspiring to continental pre-eminence in Europe, needed its people at home. Thus, the French were suspicious of sending out citizens to colonize distant lands, for fear of depopulating the homeland. The alternative would be to send out a small corps of people who would intermarry with indigenous populations, producing, as it were on-the-spot French nations overseas. But while this did happen in the St. Lawrence River Valley, the pays d'en haut produced this new culture, not wholly French or Indian, but a combination of the two.
      And Langlade, born Charles Michel de Langlade in May 1729 at Mackinac, was the personification of this middle ground policy. His father, Augustin Mouet de Moras, a French fur trader at Michillemackinac, was the first to use the name Langlade.7 Augustin married Domitilde, an Ottawa woman, who was his lifelong partner. She was also the sister of Nissowaquet, an Ottawa chief called La Fourche by the French. She was also the widow of Daniel Villeneuve and had had six children by him. As far as can be determined, Langlade was Augustin and Domitilde's only child. He was educated by the Jesuits at Mackinac, and it is possible he was also sent to Montreal for further studies. He also grew up in and absorbed his mother's culture, especially when his father's business took him away from home.

      At the age of ten, Langlade gained a military reputation when he was summoned by his uncle, La Fourche, to take part in a war party against the Chickasaw. La Fourche dreamt that the enemy could only be put to rout by having Langlade accompany him on the expedition. A dream in Ottawa culture was a powerful sign not to be disobeyed. If his father was apprehensive about having his young son travel to Tennessee with a French-and- Indian war party, he had tittle choice about the matter. He reportedly questioned his son about the Ottawa's request and then said, "You must go with your uncles; but never let me hear of your showing any marks of cowardice."8
      While some accounts report that this expedition routed the Chickasaws, the outcome was less spectacular, ending with a negotiated treaty because neither side prevailed. Still this was enough of a success for Langlade to win the title, Aukewingeketawso--defender of his country.9 It was during this campaign that Langlade became enthralled with military life. It would become for him one of his three occupations, the other two being trader and Indian agent.
      Although most accounts say that Langlade's father moved a large part of his fur trade to La Baye in 1746 after the Fox Wars, wintered there, and spent the summer at Michillemackinac, first contact had been made by Augustin's brother, Didace Mouet de Moras, as early as 1732.10
      Around 1750, Langlade married an Ottawa woman named Agathe, and they had a son Charles Jr. Langlade later left her, but he sent his son to Montreal for his education and probably kept in contact with him through the years. Charles Jr. settled in Green Bay and later in Michilimackinac.11, Much has been made that Langlade had an illicit, by European standards, marriage with Agathe. But according Ó la fašon du pays, marriages like this were acceptable. Sometimes the marriages were long-term; in other cases such a marriage was a limited contract. But even short-term marriages "were considered respectable." 12 Jesuits, who had originally condemned such marriages, accepted them by this time if the woman had been baptized. However, French noblemen in the St. Lawrence Valley, while understanding the political and economic value of these unions, were much more racist and condescending in their views about these unions.13 Still, marriages were usually less easily dissolved if the couple had children.14

      But the French in New France had more problems than trying to control the lives of Frenchmen in the pays d'en haut, and Langlade would find himself in a skirmish that would set the stage for a war of world-wide dimensions. Since 1748, tensions had been growing in the Ohio Valley between the French and English, each believing they had rights to this area. Langlade, by now a cadet, had gone to a village in the Ohio Valley called Pickawillany to trade. The village of about 8,000 Miami was led b a pro-British chief called La Demoiselle (you lady), who apparently insulted the young Langlade. Blood had been previously spilt on both sides, and tempers were running high. On his return from this region, an enraged Langlade told a friend, an Ottawa named Pontiac, about his treatment.15 Pontiac, too, became enraged, and the two men vowed to take revenge on the arrogant La Demoiselle. With the permission of the commandant of Detroit, Pierre-Joseph de Celoron, who was worried about British boldness in this area, Langlade vowed to avenge himself. In fact, Celoron had been ordered to take action on what was considered British interference in that region, but he could not raise the necessary Indian auxiliaries. Langlade's request was an answer to his prayers.

      In June 1752, with 250 Ottawa and Chippewa warriors, Langlade and Pontiac attacked the village at sunrise when most of the defenders were away. The village was torched, and La Demoiselle and an English trader were eaten.16 Tongue in cheek, White wrote that La Demoiselle, who had vowed not to return to the French alliance, "had died without returning to the alliance, but the alliance had nevertheless incorporated him once more [by eating him]."17 And "in the aftermath of Langlade's victory, Onontio reincorporated his errant children back in the alliance."18 This would not be the last time Langlade would be associated with what both French and British officials considered atrocities.
      Langlade, himself the son of an Ottawa, was to win praise for this effort but with a qualification. On October 25, 1753, Governor Duquesne wrote a letter to the French Foreign Minister commending Langlade's raid. But he added, "as the Sieur de Langlade is not in the service and has married a Savage woman, I will content myself with asking you Monseigneur, for a yearly pension of 200 livres wherewith he will be highly pleased . . . such a reward would have very good effect in the country.19

      But Langlade was already a cadet in the king's service, a position his father had purchased for him on March 28, 1750.20 After his victory at Pickawillany, Langlade was also appointed as Indian agent for the pays d'en haut, distributing annuities to the Western tribes.
      Perhaps Langlade's marriage to Agathe was failing or perhaps Langlade saw a marriage to "a Savage woman" as detrimental to his career. At any rate, on August 12, 1754, Charles Moras, Sieur de Langlade, and Charlotte Ambroisine Bourassa were married with the Church's blessing at Mackinac. Bourassa was the daughter of Rene Bourassa and Marie Catherine Laplante of Montreal.21 Her father, a well-to-do trader who settled at Mackinac, was prominent enough to be mentioned in the English-French peace treaty of 1763.22 Langlade must have been quite charming to win Charlotte Bourassa in a land where women were few and had their choice of men. TassÚ described her as "remarkably beautiful, having a slender figure, regular features and very black eyes."23 However, she had an immense fear of Indians. According to TassÚ, at the sight of them she experienced a strong nervous shock and could not control the emotion which seized upon her.24

      If Madame Langlade happened to see a canoe loaded with Indians, which seemed to be coming towards the shore, she would open the door and cry in a despairing tone, "They are coming! They are coming! Now we shall all be massacred!"25

      Once when in this state at La Baye (probably after 1763), some Menominee entered her house to talk with her husband. Langlade only said quietly, "What are you doing, my wife? Return to your room, and don't disturb us."26 He, who grew up with Indians and was a Metis himself, seemed embarrassed by her behavior. But his wife had witnessed the horrors of the massacre at Mackinac-a scene not easily forgotten. It took many years before she would feel at ease among thern.27 For their part, the Indians seemed to take her behavior good naturedly.28
      Langlade and his wife had two daughters, Charlotte Catharine born in 1756, and Louise Domitile, who latter married Pierre Grignon.29
      In 1754, Governor Duquesne asked Langlade to raise an army of Indian auxiliaries to help defend Fort Duquesne. On March 15, 1755, Langlade was commissioned an ensign. He enlisted his old friend Pontiac and proceeded to the area to meet with Claude-Pierre PÚcaudy de Contrecouer, fort commandant, and his officers, LiÚnard de Beaujeu and Jean-Daniel Dumas. Altogether, Contrecouer had "72 regulars of the marine, 146 Canadian militiamen and 637 ... Indians under command of ... Beaujeu."30

      "Though the French won a spectacular success, that success must also be credited to Braddock's arrogance and inflexibility."

      As best as can be determined from various and sketchy accounts, General Edward Braddock was marching from the South with more than twice that many men, British regulars and provincial militia and heavy artillery. If that artillery reached the fort, Contrecouer knew British fire power would pound the fort to pieces. The British must be stopped. When Beaujeu was killed in a head-on assault on the British, Langlade and Pontiac prevailed upon Dumas to change tactics. The British, marching in file and fife formation, had to cross the Monongahela twice in a direct route to the fort. When they had crossed once, Lt. Col. Thomas Gage as point man led some of the British troops in the second crossing while Braddock waited in the rear, reportedly having lunch. When Gage reached the other side, his troops were in a ravine with hills on both sides and flanked by French and Indian auxiliaries. Langlade, who slipped easily into his Ottawa culture and dressed in Ottawa style, began raining bullets down on Braddock's divided troops under cover of trees. When Braddock heard the shots, he rushed more troops to the front. They, too, were cut to pieces. Though the British had one thousand men still in reserve, a rout ensued. Braddock was killed in the fight. Though the French won a spectacular success, that success must also be credited to Braddock's arrogance and inflexibility.31

  • Sources 
    1. [S74240] Family Notes from Marguerite Waggoner Hoxsie, Helene Lloy Brown.
      Date of Import: Nov 3, 2002

    2. Br°derbund Family Archive #118, Ed. 1, Canadian Genealogy Index, 1600s - 1900s, Date of Import: 1 Feb 1997, Internal Ref. #1.118.1.45967.10.